Fungible tokens – meaning and examples

Fungible tokens are one of the two main types of digital tokens, the other type being non-fungible tokens (NFTs). In this post, we explain in detail what fungible tokens are and how they differ from NFTs. Jump to: What is fungibility? What are fungible tokens? ‘Clean Bitcoins’ vs ‘dirty Bitcoins’ What is fungibility? Fungibility is […]

What is a cryptocurrency exchange?

Many of us have heard about cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Dogecoin, and Ether. But, what is a cryptocurrency exchange, and how does it function? In a nutshell, a cryptocurrency exchange is a platform that enables investors to buy or sell a particular cryptocurrency in exchange for fiat money (dollars, pounds, euros, etc.) or another cryptocurrency. […]

NFT meaning, marketplaces, and scams

In this post, we offer a beginner’s guide to NFTs. We explain the meaning of an NFT and how NFTs are be traded in marketplaces. We also discuss various types of NFT scams. Jump to: What does NFT mean? NFT marketplaces NFT scams Final word on NFTs What does NFT mean? NFT is an acronym […]

Tokenomics: Definition and guide for crypto investors

Over the past decade, cryptocurrency markets saw immense levels of growth. The stellar increase in the value of bitcoin, wild speculations and bubbles in various digital tokens, and cryptocurrency exchange hacks have been extensively covered in media. Even people with little interest in finance have become familiar with terms such as initial coin offerings, non-fungible […]

Investments quiz – Test your knowledge!

This investments quiz aims to test your knowledge of the material covered in our free investments course. The quiz is a multiple-choice test. It consists of three sections: Section A: Return calculations. Section B: Portfolio theory. Section C: CAPM and APT. The answers and solutions are provided at the bottom of this page. Section A: […]

Descriptive statistics for stock returns

Descriptive statistics offer a simple way of understanding distributions of stock returns. They give us an idea about a distribution’s centrality, dispersion, and other features. In this tutorial, we will show you how to generate descriptive statistics using Excel’s data analysis tool. What you need to proceed with is an Excel spreadsheet with the returns […]

Arbitrage pricing theory (APT)

In the previous lesson, we learned about the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). According to the CAPM, any risky asset’s expected return depends on its exposure to the market risk. So, CAPM is based on the idea that market risk is the sole systematic risk factor. Because systematic risk can’t be eliminated via diversification, risk-averse […]

Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

The capital asset pricing model (or the CAPM) is probably one of the most commonly taught topics in finance. This is not because it is a perfect model. In fact, it is far from it. However, the CAPM is built upon some of the most fundamental concepts in finance. Furthermore, CAPM is widely used in […]

Systematic risk and unsystematic risk

When we talk about the risk of investing in stocks, corporate bonds, etc., we can distinguish between two main sources of risk: Systematic risk and unsystematic risk. The former relates to sources of risk that affect the entire market whereas the latter is risk specific to individual securities. Learning objectives Understand the distinction between systematic […]